Studies on babies suggests that there is a certain morality sense we are birth with. Of course, this instinct must be developed and refined by society. It is, however, unlikely that our moral rules can become really disconnected with this moral instincts.
Most of these instincts are based on compassion. However there are also other emotions that shapes our common (punitive) moral sense. For example Contempt, Anger, and Disgust (CAD) appears as result of perceived violation of moral rules regarding Community, Autonomy, and Divinity (again CAD).